Ethics Lecture 2 (June to July 6)

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Ethics Lecture 2 (June to July 6)

Post  xerxes on Mon Jul 06, 2009 3:56 pm

References:




Introduction to the Humanities (Painting,
Sculpture, Architecture, Music and Literature) by Doris Van de Bogart




Introduction to Humanities (Arts for Fine
Living) by Josefina Estolas, Clarita Javier and Nieves Pada-Payno




The Humanities (Revised Edition) by Francisco
M. Zulueta








What is the Best Form of Government?




DEMOCRATIC OR MONARCHIAL OR DICTATORSHIP OR
COMMUNISM?




PRESIDENTIAL OR PARLIAMENTARY?



FEDERAL OR UNITARY?






“NO SYSTEM OF POWER CAN REPLACE MORALITY”
–Mikhail Gorbachev (Soviet Union Executive
President)






According to Alexander Pope






FOR FORMS OF GOVERNMENT LET FOOLS CONTEST,
WHATEVER IS BEST ADMINISTERED IS THE BEST”






According to John Stuart Mill






“A GOOD GOVERNMENT IS ONE WHICH PROMOTES THE
VIRTUE AND INTELLIGENCE OF THE PEOPLE AND FOSTERS THE MORAL AND INTELLECTUAL
QUALITIES OF THE CITIZENS”







“…AS LONG AS IT WOULD PROMOTE THE GENERAL
WELFARE, MORALE, INTELLIGENCE, SOCIAL JUSTICE, AND THE ULTIMATE HAPPINESS OF
THE PEOPLE.”



-Opinion
of Political Analysts






George Washington said:






“MORALITY AND RELIGION ARE THE TWO
INDISPENSABLE PILLARS TO HUMAN PROSPERITY AND HAPPINESS”






IS LEGAL ALWAYS MORAL?





Humanities:



Latin word “HUMANUS” meaning human, refined
and cultured.




Based on the philosophical view of Humanism
which stresses the dictum of Protagoras, a Greek philosopher, that “man is the
measure of all things.”




“Man is the measure of all things” implies
that the humanities emphasizes the dignity and worthiness of man and recognizes
creative expressions.




When the first medieval universities were
established, the professors, mostly churchmen, were interested in arguing about
metaphysics and religion (Scholasticism). To them Humanities meant primarily
philosophy and theology.




Humanists of the Renaissance asserted the
intrinsic value of man’s life on earth, as opposed to the medieval interest in
eternity.




Humanities during the period included
disciplines which would make man’s life richer and more meaningful: the
languages and literature of Greece
and Rome, fine
arts, music, and philosophy in it’s more traditional divisions.




The 19th century witnessed a certain loss of
prestige of the Humanities to the sciences and social sciences, because many
men believed that science could procure everything that man needed or wanted.




Recently, there has come the important
realization that science is not an unmixed blessing. Other scientific inventions
can ultimately destroy man unless they are controlled by individuals of high
ideals, morality and good will.




Humanities now has shifted to modern
literature although masterpieces of philosophy, history, theology and sciences
are often included.




Included too are critical and historical
studies of the fine arts and music.




Humanities generally refers to art,
literature, music, sculpture, architecture, dance and the theatre—areas in
which human subjectivity is emphasized and individual expressiveness is
dramatized.






Humanities:



The humanities are, therefore, the records of
man’s experiences, his values, his sentiments, his ideas, and his goals.




Humanities are ultimately the expressions of
man’s feelings and thoughts.






Why study Humanities?



To leaven the alarming materialism of modern
civilization




The importance of human being and his feeling
is the main concern of humanities.




Learning to be human



Aimed to make man a full man---cultured,
refined and well-rounded




The Humanities are important in the
development of the complete social being, ready to take on his responsibilities
in this rapidly changing world and enjoy life.




Man is the measure of all things



Nourishment of heart and mind; Best spiritual
nourishment






Arts


A product of man’s need to express himself and is not
limited to the revelation of emotions alone.




Personal and



Social Values of artist are also manifested





Ars



Latin word



Meaning ABILITY or SKILL





Basic Elements of Fine Arts



Subject



Medium



Line



Color



Texture



Volume



Perspective



Form



Style





How to understand a work of Art?



What did the artist make? What is it about?
(the subject)




What did the artist want to show in his work?
What is the artwork for? (Function)




What is the artwork made of? (Medium)



What is the personality or individuality of
the art work? (Style and mood of temper)




How good is it? (Judgment)



What is the meaning conveyed by the art? How
does it make life more meaningful?






Artist



A person skilled in one of the fine arts



A skilled performer



One who professes and practices an imaginative art



One skilled or versed in learned arts



One who is adept at deception





Visual Artists



Painter



Architect



Sculptor



Photographers



Filmmakers



Graphic Artists





Art of Movement (Music / Dance)



Musicians



Singers



Composers



Instrumentalist



Performer



Choreographer





Literary Artists



Poets



Novelists



Writers / Authors



Dramatists



Playwright





Philosophy



Pursuit of Wisdom



Analysis of the grounds of and concepts
expressing fundamental beliefs




Search for general understanding of values



Love of Wisdom



Discipline (Logic, Ethics, etc.)





Philosopher



One who seeks wisdom and enlightenment



One who uses reasoning



Expounder of a theory in a particular area of
experience




Thinker





Socrates



One of the greatest teachers of all time, and
he wrote nothing




Acts 17:21 “Now all the Athenians and the
strangers sojourning there spent their time in nothing else, but either to tell
or to hear some new thing”




Put to death in 399 B.C., was accused of
“corrupting the youth”






Plato



Was an aristocrat, a soldier, an athlete and
a musician




Dialogues indicate that they are Plato’s
application and extension of the master’s teaching




The Republic, Plato’s most important legacy



Communism and socialism, birth control



Logos is Plato’s “Divine Idea”



Plato’s system was virtually practiced for a
thousand years




Medieval
Church
: 3 classes
of people: (Workers, soldiers and clergy)




Quadrivium (Arithmetic, geometry, astronomy
and music) was modeled on Plato’s curriculum




We need to be governed by our wisest men





Aristotle



Son of the King’s physician



Plato’s student, did not get along very well



Tutor of the young Alexander



World’s first scientist



World’s first example of the financing of
science by public wealth




Established world’s first zoological garden



In spite of errors and absurdities, his data
became the Encyclopedia Britannica for 2 thousand years




Created a new science, logic



Organon, explained Aristotle’s new science,
logic.






Plato vs. Aristotle



Aristotle interested in things



Plato interested in ideas



Plato’s idealism; Aristotle’s organization



Banned because of:



Paganism



Organon was translated by Boethius, became
the basis of Scholastic philosophy

xerxes
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